In this article, we will discuss the Genetic evaluation of the Luxembourg Warmblood Horse. We will also cover genetic parameters in the Dutch Warmblood breed and the Belgian Warmblood. Listed below are some of the main characteristics of these breeds. The first is their performance. Some are even recognized for their show jumping ability. The second is their parentage. The third one is the most important trait, the willingness to learn. This trait is found in most Luxembourg Warmblood Horses.
Genetic evaluation of the Luxembourg Warmblood Horse
The WorldFengur database has been growing tremendously since 2001. It includes information about horses, breeders and owners, colours, microchip numbers, DNA profiles, health records, and more. The database is undergoing continuous evolution to comply with the EU directive for equidae. This project will continue to expand to include information about the breed’s genetic makeup. It is important to note that the WF cannot be used to determine the ancestry of a horse, but it does include information such as its ancestry.
In addition to the PLOD1 mutation, the study also included genotypes of 2288 SWB sport horses. Twenty-two percent of the horses had the mutation and none were homozygous. However, the number of horses genotyped in each birth cohort varied significantly: only five for the birth years 1971-1980 and eighty-seven for the years 2016-2020. The highest numbers of carriers were found in the fourth and fifth birth cohorts.
The analysis of pedigrees of Luxembourg Warmblood horses revealed that the coancestry between a mare and her sire was 1.86%. The proportion of coancestry between a sire and his mare was highest among those horses born in 1999. The number of founders per year inversely correlated with the proportion of horses born in a given year. Genetic diversity within a single year group was low in the next several years.
The results of the study also show that the WFFS allele has the greatest effect on gait and dressage performance. Overall, horses carrying the WFFS allele had 2.50 higher show jumping scores than those with the N/N allele. Thus, the WFFS allele is associated with the high frequency of WFFS in SWB horses. The results of the study suggest that the WFFS allele may be an important balancing selection factor.
The WFFS gene, which is dominant in the SJ breed, is responsible for a number of traits. For example, the WFFS carrier genotype in SJ horses was significantly associated with shorter loins, higher croup, longer cadence, and lower general gait direction. The WFFS genotype in SJ horses was also associated with a longer, more sloping loin and a higher winging movement.
Inbreeding levels vary considerably between the three breeds. The most common among these three breeds is the Malopolska type, which exhibits the lowest inbreeding coefficient. Inbreeding levels are inversely proportional to the number of individuals in the reference population. The ten founders accounted for 55% of the total inbreeding in the reference population. Rantzau and Ramzes contribute to 7%.
The prevalence of PSSM2 in the Luxembourg Warmblood breed varies. However, it affects approximately 80% of the Warmblood population. Approximately 30% of affected breeds show reversible clinical signs and can reach acceptable levels. In some cases, the disease will recur. The genetic diagnosis of PSSM2 is not recommended for breeding purposes. While the Luxembourg Warmblood breed has a long history of quality and consistency, genetic testing has not been proven to help identify this disease in these horses.
Genetic parameters for show jumping in the Belgian Warmblood breed
The Luxembourg Warmblood horse has a long history in show jumping. It was introduced to the world in the 1950s when it was still a mixed breed with little warmblood mare base. Today, this breed boasts more than three thousand brood mares. Breeders largely refined the breed by using Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arabian stallions and then adding some traits from the Rhinelander and Anglo-Arabian horse breeding programs. These horses will carry the pinwheel branding of the Belgisch Warmbloedpaard association.
Future research could analyze the relationship between major genes and performance level in the show jumping and dressage disciplines. It could also focus on families that produce good performers in both disciplines at recreational levels. The data obtained in this study is the first step in determining whether Luxembourg Warmblood horses are better in one discipline than another. Ultimately, it is essential to improve the breed’s performance levels by understanding how their genetics contribute to those results.
A recent study conducted by Ruhlmann et al. showed that Luxembourg Warmblood horses have low inbreeding coefficients and high coancestry compared to other breeds. This indicates a high level of genetic diversity, particularly in those birth year groups with low numbers of horses. The findings of this study also reveal that the founders’ contribution is not equal across the different breeds.
The use of a linear scoring sheet by FPS has been implemented since 1993. The Dutch version of this scoring sheet is provided in Appendix A.1. While this system requires some familiarity from breeders, it can yield reliable estimates of detailed indexes for each stallion. Breeders must also make sure that they judge uniformity. This is vital if the scoring system is to be effective.
The study also used the results of the HGP as reference. In addition to the Luxembourg Warmblood horses, a Dutch and an Irish breeder had analyzed Icelandic toelter horses. The results of this study were published in the Journal of Agricultural Research in Iceland. The study included 12 863 pedigrees with 1,621 founders and 11,242 non-founders. The longest ancestral path had fifteen generations. The number of ancestor generations per total population was 4.25. The researchers found 1,496 pedigree lines with 365 full-sib groups.
Heritability estimates were determined by combining a pedigree database with objective measurements. The data files were then fitted to a sire model to estimate genetic parameters for the population. The results are shown in Tables 4.3 – 4.5. In addition, they include Pearson correlation coefficients for gender-specific traits. The results were compared to corresponding statistics reported by other breeds in the literature.
The decreasing fe parameter may be due to the choice of a small number of high-quality sires in equestrian sports. The number of non-founders is larger than the founder genome equivalent, indicating cumulative genetic drift. Unequal founder contribution, genetic drift, and the bottleneck effect are associated with a loss of genetic diversity in equestrian sports. Inbreeding may also be a result of the small number of sires in the breed. Artificial insemination techniques have made this trait more accessible to breeding purposes.
Genetic evaluation of the Dutch Warmblood
The purpose of this genetic evaluation of the Dutch Warmblood Horse is to determine the heritabilities and other genetic parameters in this riding horse breed. We will use performance records for dressage and jumping competitions to evaluate the genetic correlations between these traits. In the study, we used the restricted maximum likelihood method to analyze these traits. Genetic parameters were estimated for the Dutch Warmblood horse using the most recent available data. The results show that there are fewer heritabilities in the Dutch Warmblood Horse than in other types of horses.
In this study, pedigree structure was analyzed based on twelve thousand eight hundred thirty-five KWPN horses. We observed 1,621 founders and 11,242 non-founders. Non-founders constituted 87% of the entire population. The analysis found that a larger proportion of genetic variation was reduced in non-founder generations than in founder generations. This could be related to the practice of mating domestic mares with foreign sires of high performance value. These mares produced numerous offspring, but the bottleneck effect may have resulted in a genetic reduction.
The researchers analyzed the genetic diversity of the Dutch Warmblood horse by calculating parameters based on the probability of each gene being inherited from both parents. This was done to identify whether a specific gene was present in both parents. This analysis revealed that three approved stallions were carriers of the Warmblood Fragile Foal Syndrome gene. A carrier of this gene has a mutation in the LH1 gene (PLOD1) and has 50% chance of passing on the gene to their foals.
The AQHA 5 panel test has undergone five steps of scientific validation. It was not released to the public until all tests had been successfully validated. The specific mutations responsible for these diseases have been published in peer-reviewed journals. The results of these tests are reproducible and are useful in breeding. In addition, scientists can check for the genetic mutations in these horses by conducting further studies. This helps breeders to determine which variants are responsible for certain diseases.
Besides genetic tests, it is important to know the breed’s characteristics. A mutation in the glycogen synthase gene causes PSSM. Despite this, not all horses with PSSM have the mutation. Genetic testing suggests that there are at least two types of PSSM – type one (PSSM1) and type two (PSSM2).
The KWPN database provides a comprehensive database of breeding values. You can see individual breeding values under the “Genetic Profile” tab in KWPN’s database. Each breeding value must be at least 30% reliable. Breeders who wish to make use of these results must have the mare’s original hair sample available for testing. These tests are recommended for breeding purposes. The KWPN will publish the results of the genetic evaluation of the Dutch Warmblood Horse in its stallion registry.