Threats and Conservation of the Kundudo Horse in Ethiopia

This article examines the threats and conservation of the Kundudo Horse, from the breeding track to the threat of extinction. You’ll also learn about the local interest group GAG, which is trying to promote tourism development in the area. After reading this article, you should be able to recognize how unique this species is. Listed below are some ways to protect the Kundudo Horse. We hope you find this article useful.

Breeding track

The Kundudo Horse is a breed of feral horses that inhabits the eastern Hararghe Zone. It is found in the Gursum region of Ethiopia, near the Kundudo Mountain. The area is surrounded by the Harashi Kebeles, Badada, and Gursum Woreda. The Kundudo Horse is one of the oldest wild horse populations in Africa, and was discovered in 2008 by an Italian ecologic mission. It is one of the only species of wild horse found in east Africa.

Initially, the number of wild Kundudo horses decreased drastically from eighteen in 2013 to seven in 2015. The population was vulnerable to wildlife and inbreeding. These factors led to the local community attempting to keep these horses in captivity. The community has begun to recognize Kundudo Mountain as an in-situ site. They have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to further engage in conservation and breeding.

This breed is critically endangered. It was originally captured in the wild near the city of Harar in Ethiopia and subsequently domesticated by locals. They are now scarcely seen anywhere else in the world. Two main threats to the Kundudo Horse breed are inbreeding and poor horse management. The extreme market demands for the breed have spelled doom for this breed. However, with the help of dedicated breeders, the population has been restored to about 30 horses.

The EBI, OEFCCA, and Haramaya University are currently managing reviving the breed and its environment. In the coming years, a breeding track is expected to be established. This will ensure that the breed is thriving again and is sustainable for the future. The Kundudo horse has survived in the wild for over 3,000 years, but is now gravely endangered. EBI is working with the community to preserve this rare breed for the future.


The population of Kundudo Horses is critically endangered. The animals were captured by local inhabitants while under a process of domestication. Today, they are seldom seen in their native habitats. The breed of Kundudo Horse is threatened by high levels of inbreeding, poor horse management practices, and excessive market demand. The following article will discuss how to save this endangered breed. While no specific breeding practices have been identified as the main cause of its decline, the following habitat characteristics have been suggested as important factors.

A significant component of the habitat of Kundudo horses is the mountain and its basement, which is of high naturalistic interest. It is made of sedimentary rock strata and contains numerous cavities and stalactites. The summit, which is only a few hundred meters thick, features a green flat top. The mountain also contains a small permanent pond and a temporary bog, as well as magmatic materials found in the lower areas. The mountain was once considered a wonder only a decade ago.

The mountain foothills of the Cincar mountain in Bosnia are home to more than 400 feral horses. The population of these horses ranges between 145 square kilometers and 56 square miles. The animals are descendants of horses set free by their owners in the 1950s. They enjoy protected status since 2010 and have been studied by several agencies to protect them. In India, the modern population of Kundudo Horses is concentrated in the Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve and the Dibru-Saikhowa National Park in Assam.

Increasing government funding for conservation activities is essential. Research projects should investigate the prevalence of disease, morphological characteristics, and the perceptions of local communities. In addition, the government should establish funds for a proper funding source for these projects. The Kundudo Horse’s habitat is a critically important resource for local communities. It can serve as a model for how to improve and protect rural communities while preserving the species’ habitat.

Threats to extinction

The threats to the Kundudo Horse include habitat degradation, inbreeding, and high market demand for horse products. Despite its thriving population, the Kundudo Horse is threatened by several factors, including inbreeding, poor horse management, and low conservation efforts. EIB, a nonprofit conservation organization, took the initiative to work toward the horse’s recovery.

The Kundudo Horse lives in eastern Ethiopia, where it was once a feral species. They are thought to have roamed the plateau for untold centuries. The ancestors of this unique species were believed to be the last survivors of the 1528-1560 Ethiopian Christian-Muslim war. The Christian forces were led by Atse Lebna Dengel.

The feral population of the Kundudo Horse was reported at nine animals in 2010, but in 2013 the number was 18 and the number of rescued horses has increased since. Moreover, there is a need to preserve the horse’s genetic variation in a permanent manner. Lack of haylage and feed stores, poor management of pasture grasses, and inadequate breeding methods are some of the other issues that may contribute to the horse’s decline.

In Ethiopia, there are several threats to the Kundudo Horse. One major threat is the eradication of wild populations. Inbreeding is a major threat to the Kundudo Horse’s long-term survival. It is estimated that the remaining 12 wild horses are threatened by diseases and habitat destruction. The EBI and Oromia EFCCA collaborate on a joint annual report on the Kundudo Feral Horse’s status and conservation.

The OEFCCA and EBI local branches have partnered with the local branch of the EBI to conduct a workshop in Harar City, Ethiopia on December 28, 2021. The workshop was aimed at raising public awareness of the Kundudo Feral Horse Breed and developing sustainable conservation and utilization strategies. Participants included religious leaders and the Aba Gadas. The OEFCCA and EBI local branches have also collaborated to establish a breeding program in Harar City.


The emergence of an ambitious conservation plan is necessary to save the remaining wild horses of Ethiopia. According to the study conducted by Haramaya University, the population of kundudo horses in Oromia Region is at risk of extinction. However, after the government’s intervention, nine horses were released back into the wild. This has raised hopes for sustainable tourism development in the region. The Oromia Environment, Forest and Climate Change Authority and the Haramaya University have signed an MOU for the conservation of the Kundudo Horse.

There are various threats that threaten the Kundudo horse’s survival. A decline in breeding numbers may be due to inbreeding, a lack of diversified pasture grasses, or the lack of water in the area. Lack of management activities could be one of the factors contributing to the decrease of Kundudo horse population. Moreover, lack of resources in the area could also lead to poor management of available pasture and other factors that threaten the well-being of the horse.

In the past decade, the Oromia National Regional State Environment, Forest and Climate Change Authority and the Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute (EBI) have been collaborating to restore the Kundudo Horse population to its previous numbers. The EBI and OEFCCA were equally supportive of their joint conservation efforts, which include in-situ and ex-situ in-vitro breeding. The study also aims at improving the status of the wild horse population in the region.

Feral horses are rare in Ethiopia. The Kundudo horse breed, located on the Kundudo Mountain in eastern Ethiopia, is a critically endangered species. They make up the largest population of horse species in Africa and comprise nearly one-fourth of its total population. However, their numbers are decreasing at a dangerous rate and are vulnerable to wild predators. Local community members began to keep the horses captive for various uses.


There are no documented historical records on the origin of the Kundudo Feral Horse, but the local elders have speculated that these animals are remnants of an Ethiopian Muslim-Christian war that took place between 1528 and 1560. As the mountain is strategically situated, this may be a possible explanation for the horses’ existence. The GAG, an Addis Ababa-based local interest group dedicated to the protection and promotion of the Kundudo horse, is responsible for conducting scientific research on this species.

The partnership between the EBI and OEFCCA will focus on reestablishing the breed and its environment. The EBI is responsible for ensuring that the project is able to achieve its goals, including the conservation of biodiversity in the Region. The MOU also seeks to establish sustainable management of the genetic resource and create a balance between the interests of the locals and the needs of the horse. By implementing these conservation measures, the partnership is helping to protect the Kundudo Horse from extinction.

While the Kundudo is considered a feral horse, there is no documented evidence of it in the rest of the Ethiopian horse population. The horse’s name comes from the Kundudo Mountain, which is the highest peak in the area. The lands surrounding the Kundudo area are characterized by a variety of scenic landscapes. The region also boasts an impressive seasonal waterfall and mountain range, including the Kundudo North Face.

The number of horses in the region has increased significantly in the past seven years. The population has increased from nine to twenty-eight in the past seven years, but despite the growing numbers, the survival of the Kundudo Horse depends on conservation efforts and awareness-raising activities. As these efforts continue, public awareness will likely grow, and conservation measures will soon be in place. This project will have a lasting impact on the Kundudo’s survival.

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